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                新石器时代(neolithic age)的磨制】石器工业(ground stone tools industry)研究


                新石器时代(neolithic age)的磨制石器工业(ground stone tools industry)研究是一个比较新的课题。本文以桐林遗址发掘出土的大量石质品(lithics)为研究资料,通过行为链(behavior chain)和以在石器生命历程中所扮演的角色为首要分类依据,构建了一个针对该石质品组合的完整的分类体系并设计了描述和绘图的方法。

                A research on ground stone tools industry of Neolithic Age is a relatively new subject. The paper, setting a large number of lithics excavated in Tonglin site as research data, builds a complete classification system specific to the combination of the lithics, and designs a means of description and drawing by means of behavior chain and of setting the role to play in the life course of stone tools as the primary classification basis.


                The paper, specific to ground stone tools industry system of Longshan culture and Yueshi culture in Tonglin site, discusses from the three aspects i.e. technological system, consumption and circulation, and organization on the basis of classification system.

                通过比较和分析,确定在龙山时期,桐林遗址石器工业的主流产品是各种石锛(stone adzes),也生产少量石斧(stone axes)、石凿(stone chisels)等。岳石时期石器工业急剧衰减,但依然生产石斧、石刀(stone knives)等产品,其中石刀富有岳石文化的特点。

                By comparison and analysis, it is determined in the Longshan culture period that the mainstream products in Tonglin site stone tools industry were all kinds of stone adzes, and a minority of stone axes and stone chisels etc were produced. In Yueshi culture period, stone tools industry declined sharply, but such products as stone axes and stone knives etc were still produced, of which stone knives are characterized by Yueshi culture.


                It is indicated in the research of technological system that Tonglin site stone tools industry has a great selection to lithological character. More than 90 of products in Longshan and Yueshi periods were made from various slates. Almost all of abraders are quartz sandstones. The two kinds of building stones are produced on Yugong Mountain at the less than 1km distance away from the site. It can be identified according to retention strategy of natural surface of semi-finished products and classification analysis of chippings that the raw materials in the Tonglin site are elaborately gathered slate rocks on Yugong Mountain rather than being exploited on the bed rocks.

                在各类产品的打制坯和琢磨坯上可以看到加工的技术和顺序,基本每类产品都经历打制(flaking)、琢制(pecking)和磨制(grinding)的过程,少量石斧和石刀存在采用琢钻和实心钻(perforation by pecking and solid drilling)技术的钻孔。从琢磨坯(pecking/grinding raw products)上观察到的打制技术特点显示:打制过程倾向于保留原材料的自然平面。这种现象在龙山文化石锛琢磨坯中非常明显,并且分化出以A型、B型、C型石锛琢磨坯为代表的三种技术风格,这三种风格在石斧和石凿上也有体现。岳石文化的加工技术和龙山基本一致。

                Processed technology and sequence can be seen from all sorts of flaking and grinding raw products. Each kind of products generally undergoes the processes of flaking, pecking and grinding. A small quantity of stone axes and stone knives have drill holes to adopt the technology of perforation by pecking and solid drilling. Technical feature of flaking through the observation of pecking/grinding raw products displays: flaking process tends to natural surface retaining raw materials. Such phenomenon is extremely obvious in stone adzes pecking/grinding raw products of Longshan culture, and three technological styles taking Type A, Type B and Type C as representatives are differentiated. The three styles also embody in stone axes and stone chisels. Processing technology of Yueshan culture is basically the same as Longshan.

                通过成品ω与琢磨坯的比较和岩性分析发现,在龙山文化时期桐林遗址存在相当规模的以石锛为主的对外输出,但也有以A型石斧为代表的产品输ω 入;岳石文化时期可能有石斧的输出和石凿的输入。

                It is founded through the comparison of finished products and pecking/grinding raw products and analysis on lithological character that, foreign output with a comparable scale giving priority to stone adzes exists in the Tonglin site of Longshan culture period, but product input taking Type A stone axes as a representative is also available; output of stone axes and input of stone chisels may be available in Yueshi culture period.

                由于桐林遗址是一个自然废弃的居址(settlement),绝大部分石质品都出土于灰坑(ash pits)中,因此不具备进行空间分析的价值。通过对灰坑中遗物的分析认为,石器工业遍布整个发掘区并有可能以家庭(household)为单位进行生产。原料的低利用率以及缺乏相关证据表明,龙山和岳石时期对附近的资源产地不大可能有人为的控制。

                Owing to Tonglin site being a naturally abandoned settlement and most of lithics being excavated from ash pits, value of spatial analysis is unavailable. It is believed through the analysis on relics in ash pits that stone tools industry spreads over the whole excavation area and may produce taking household as a unit. Low efficiency of raw materials and a lack of relevant evidences denote artificial control over adjacent resources producing places was not likely to exist in Longshan and Yueshi periods.


                Known from the research case analysis on ground stone tools industry of the whole Neolithic Age, geographical conditions are still primary factors to affect stone tools industry. Characteristics of raw materials and practical applicability of products result in producing technological system taking preferential efficiency as the guide, and jointly influence the form of stone tools.

                关键词:桐林遗址  龙山文化  磨制石器工业  技术体系  原料,需要翻译论文,请联系我司。

                Key Words: Tonglin site; Longshan culture; ground stone tools industry; technological system; raw materials

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